Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury and Downsyndrome Condition

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, characteristic facial features, and mild to moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent to the mental ability of an 8 or 9-year-old child, but this can vary widely.

The parents of the affected individual are typically genetically normal. The extra chromosome occurs by chance. The probability increases from less than 0.1% in 20-year-old mothers to 3% in those age 45. There is no known behavioral activity or environmental factor that changes the probability. Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing. Since the introduction of screening, pregnancies with the diagnosis are often terminated. Regular screening for health problems common in Down syndrome is recommended throughout the person’s life.

There is no cure for Down syndrome. Education and proper care have been shown to improve quality of life. Some children with Down syndrome are educated in typical school classes, while others require more specialized education. Some individuals with Down syndrome graduate from high school, and a few attend post-secondary education. In adulthood, about 20% in the United States do paid work in some capacity, with many requiring a sheltered work environment. Support in financial and legal matters is often needed. Life expectancy is around 50 to 60 years in the developed world with proper health care.

Down syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in humans. It occurs in about one per 1,000 babies born each year In 2015, Down syndrome was present in 5.4 million individuals and resulted in 27,000 deaths, down from 43,000 deaths in 1990. It is named after John Langdon Down, a British doctor who fully described the syndrome in 1866.Some aspects of the condition were described earlier by Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Édouard Séguin in 1844. In 1959, the genetic cause of Down syndrome, an extra copy of chromosome 21, was discovered.


  • Abilities
  • Albino Charity Organisation of Zimbabwe
  • Arunah Fellowship of Zimbabwe
  • Association of the Deaf (ASSOD)
  • Children’s Rehabilitation Unit
  • Council for the Blind
  • Danhiko Project
  • Deaf Zimbabwe Trust
  • Disability Agenda Forum
  • Disability Resource Centre
  • Disabled Child Network
  • Disabled Helping Hand Association
  • Disablement Association of Zimbabwe
  • Disabled Women Support Organisation
  • Dorothy Duncan Centre
  • Dzivarasekwa Organisation for Disabled Persons
  • Emerald Hill School for the Deaf
  • Eden Centre, Gokwe
  • Epilepsy Support Foundation
  • Freedom to the Disabled Persons in Zimbabwe
  • Goodwill Child Care
  • Henry Murray School for the Deaf
  • Hope in Motion
  • Jairos Jiri Association
  • Kukura Neshungu Training and Rehabilitation Centre
  • L’arche
  • Margareta Hugo School and Workshops for the Blind
  • Midlands Association for the Promotion of Rights and Welfare of the Blind (MAPRORIWEB)
  • Multiple Sclerosis Society of Zimbabwe
  • Muscular Dystrophy Association of Zimbabwe
  • National Association for the Disabled Youth of Zimbabwe
  • National Foundation for the Disabled
  • National Society for the Care of the Blind and Physically Handicapped
  • Rukariro Rehabilitation Centre
  • Special Olympics Zimbabwe
  • Spinal Injuries Association of Zimbabwe
  • St Francis Home
  • St Francis School
  • St Giles Rehabilitation Centre
  • Tariro Halfway House
  • The Autism Organisation
  • The Bulawayo Toy Library
  • The Harare Toy Library
  • The Zimbabwe New Hope House
  • Tose Respite Care Home
  • Voluntary Services Zimbabwe
  • Wheelchair Tennis Zimbabwe
  • Westwood Cheshire Home for Disabled Children
  • Workmen’s Compensation Centre
  • Zimbabwe Association of Sports for Disabilities
  • Zimbabwe Association of the Visually Handicapped
  • Zimbabwe Downs Syndrome Association
  • Zimbabwe National Association for Mental Health
  • Zimbabwe National League of the Blind
  • Zimbabwe Occupational Therapist Association
  • Zimbabwe Parents of Handicapped Children Association
  • Zimbabwe Visually Impaired Teachers Trade Union
  • Zimcare Trust
  • Zimbabwe Women with Disabilities in Development